Tag Archives: low-water gardening

Product Review: Garden Drip Tape

In several posts, I’ve reiterated how important it is to water slowly and deeply, especially for vegetables and xeric plants. Just last week, I touted the benefits of drip irrigation as a way to accomplish deep watering and ensure that you water under plants, not over them.

I babbled so much about drip irrigation that the folks at Garden Drip System by Thombo offered to send me a free Garden Drip hose (tape) to test. The drip hose differs from typical soaker hoses in its material. Instead of the heavier, rubber-like round tubing, the drip hose comes as flat plastic tape. In fact, the company mailed it to me in a small padded envelope, not a box.

garden-drip-hose-product

The Garden Drip Hose rolls up to a compact size, so it’s small and light for shipping, storing and lugging around.

Different from soaker hoses

The drip tape material is lightweight and compact. That helped when I lugged it back and forth to try it in a few places. It didn’t take long for the rolls from packaging to completely flatten (as opposed to a regular hose I purchased recently, which keeps coiling around my leg, kinking and knocking into my delicate bean plants!)

Anyway, back to the Garden Drip. The tape is designed so that a tiny hole emits drips of water about every foot. That’s another way in which it differs from a soaker hose, which basically is scored all the way down its length. Having said that, you can control where the emitters go to some extent, but you still will get some drip between plants if you have wells rather than rows. The tape is designed to only curve slightly, not make intricate curves and 90-degree turns around a garden. The in-between drips were not a big deal, though, because the soaking is so slow and steady that I had no pooled water anywhere.

garden drip tape emitter

Tiny holes emit drips of water from the striped top of the tape, making installation super easy and the flow nice and slow.

Little pressure needed

I laid out the drip tape to water some vegetables and roses near my house and set my phone timer for four hours. It was nice to work while I watered. The pressure was terrific once I easily spotted and flattened any slight twists in the hose. Once the tape is in place, it’s unobtrusive. The polyethylene tape should stand up to beating sun better than traditional soaker hoses. I imagine you could easily place a few stakes along its path to keep it secure, but it would be best to do so while it’s running. That’s because the tape looks flat when it arrives and you first lay it out, but the shape rounded out as soon as I added water to the tape, filling it all the way to the end of the 50 feet.

garden Drip tape in vegetable bed

The thin strip of tape fit nicely under the zucchini plant and was flexible enough to curve slightly with the beds.

Speaking of pressure, I wanted to test the hose with my rain barrel, but the only barrel I have with a good hose connection is too far from my garden, so it’s unfair to readers and Garden Drip to say how it works with a 50-foot hose between the barrel and the 50-foot drip tape, not to mention a fairly inexpensive barrel and a barely downhill slope. I would suggest the shortest possible length if you want to try it with a barrel, simply because you don’t have any mechanical pressure like you will from a faucet.

garden drip hooked to hose.

I hooked the tape up to my hose for the best possible pressure in a location too far from barrels with faucets. They were simple to connect.

The Garden Drip comes in lengths of 25, 50, 75 and 100 feet. And if you watch the company’s videos, you can get fancy with shortening, repairing and customizing the hose.

Bottom line: This is the perfect way to water rows of home garden and small farm crops. It is slow and steady as promised, lightweight and effective at drip irrigation and saving water. It won’t work as well as a custom drip system for a xeric garden with plants scattered around, but if you’ve got some fairly straight rows or beds to water, this is the way to go! You can irrigate less often and more efficiently, saving water and helping your plants’ roots become more healthy.

Thinning Might Hurt You, But it Helps Your Crops

Your garden is prepped and you plant a row of carrot seeds or several cucumber seeds, just to be safe.You’re thrilled when you get a nearly 100 percent germination rate. Wow, you must be good! Or in my case, lucky. As I beam with pride, I know that the next step is to thin the seedlings. But sometimes, I fail to heed my own advice or that of horticulturalists. This year, I am trying to do a better job of thinning some of my vegetables. Baby steps…

romaine lettuce thinned

This head lettuce is lined up nicely, but it’s still a little closer together than recommended. Of course, I can cut and enjoy it anytime — before the plants get too close.

First, let’s look at the reasons why thinning helps your crops and yield, and even improves the health of flowers you start as seeds in your garden:

  • A plant can only provide so much energy to the leaves, stems and fruit. If your aim is to get as many health, juicy tomatoes as possible, then most expert gardeners recommend pruning suckers from indeterminate, or vining, tomatoes. We often trim a few lower branches too, especially if they’re touching the ground.
  • The same goes for some fruit trees, though I’ve seen some advice that says not to bother too much with thinning unless it’s obvious that a small branch can’t handle the number of budding apples or pears. And clearly, a home gardener is probably safer letting nature and birds take care of thinning out fruit from upper branches! We chose not to thin our cherry tree and it handled the fruit just fine. The birds helped out more than I would have liked, but there were several bunches of six or more cherries on one spur and most of the tree’s fruit ripened fine.
sour cherries on tree

These cherries were nearly ready to pick and growing fine in a large bunch.

  • With vegetables planted in groups or rows, such as carrots or lettuce, thinning is more to avoid overcrowding. The plants’ roots need space to grow underground – especially true of root vegetables. If crowded, the roots might not support full, healthy growth. And above ground, the leaves need air circulation and sun. Crowded plants hide bugs and hold water on their leaves. It’s like being squashed up in bleachers at a baseball game. Aren’t you more comfortable sitting out on the grass (or in one of those chairs with a cupholder), with the wind blowing through your hair?
carrots in container

I had to do a second thinning on the carrots in this container. They are way too crowded.

Thinning carrots in container

OK, still closer than the recommended two inches in a few spots, but closer. I’ll add a few of the tiny ones pulled up to my next salad.

  • I’ll add another reason to thin that I can more easily relate to. If I feel like pulling up seedlings that made it is wasteful, I have to look at continually watering seedlings I eventually have to thin out – or even worse, plants that grow to nearly mature height and then need pulling up because of a disease or just provide a low yield – as wasting water. It’s not right to let that plant continue soaking up water that could be put to better use.
green bean seedlings

These green bean seedlings are just about right. They can be four to six inches apart, since most of the growth — and the beans — vine up above the plant.

So, what can you do with seedlings so that you don’t feel like you’re wasting a viable plant, small as it may be? The little survivor, that broke through the soil and bore leaves? If the flower or vegetable is one that transplants well, you can move it to another spot, or try it in a container. Lettuce seedlings and carrot seedlings from a second thinning are often large enough to eat, even if they’re mostly garnish on your salad.

Of course, you can also compost the plants you thin and leaves or suckers you prune. When thinning, take care not to pull up the root of an adjacent plant. It helps to thin when the soil is damp and to avoid procrastinating until plants are large and closer together.

Roses in the Low-Water Garden

Roses are old-fashioned favorites that often remind gardeners of their mothers or grandmothers or of lush gardens in the South, where both water and sun were readily available from nature. But I see fewer roses in gardens now, partly because they’re associated with lots of patience and care, and partly because some of the hybrid roses need more water than a low-water garden can – and should – provide. It’s also strange to picture a tall, hybrid tea rose in the middle of a xeric landscape, although a good landscape designer can always work a small rose garden into your plan if that’s what you desire.

floribunda rose in low-water garden

Friends brought us this floribunda as a housewarming gift and it fits nicely in our xeric rose garden. We watered it the first year, but only a little this spring.

Many shrub-size roses fit in nicely with the look and purpose of a low-water garden. So you can have the scent and many other features of roses, as long as you’re willing to choose the right type of rose. Here are a few to consider:

Species roses. A species rose is basically a wild rose. Several species roses have grown to adapt to drought and other extreme conditions. I have several in my rose garden area, and I know one of them is a Wood’s rose (Rosa Woodsii). It can grow to at least 10 feet and has beautiful pink flowers, followed by hips all fall and winter, which the birds love. Another is a shorter, shrub-style rose that I believe is the Prairie rose (Rosa blanda), with pink flowers that fade to white in the center. The other has deep red flowers. Both have in common large, plentiful thorns and bunches of two-inch flowers in late spring.

woods rose bloom

Close-up of a Wood’s rose bloom. They’re small, but abundant on the plant’s long canes.

rosa blanda species rose

The wild Rosa blanda is only about 18 inches tall.

Native roses. In New Mexico and other Southwestern states, the Arizona Rosewood (Vauquelina californica), which resembles an evergreen oleander in its foliage and shape, or the Apache Plume (Fallugia paradoxica) both have delicate white flowers that resemble roses. The native plants have adapted to the Southwest and attract bees.

apache plume

This Apache plume (with the Wood’s rose in left background) got too dense and full. They are so easy to care for and forgiving when pruned.

Shrubs and groundcovers. Some hybrid roses have been adapted to grow as smaller shrubs and groundcovers. They’ll use less water and take up less space in the landscape. In general, they need less care than other rose types, but have long bloom periods.

Flower Carpet red

Flower Carpet Red from Tesselaar is a spreading groundcover rose that reaches no more than 32 inches high. It’s drought tolerant once established and hardy down to zone 5. Image courtesy of Tesselaar.

In fact, species, native and certain shrub or groundcover roses are all typically easier to care for and relatively disease free. Just give them mostly sun and prune according to recommendations once in early spring. You don’t have to continuously dead-head blooms, and they have adapted to lower water and the changing conditions of high deserts and mountains, so having them in your garden is more water wise. But there are a few disadvantages. The species roses are wild, which means they can sprout new canes or offshoots. The yellow one in our garden has gotten too thick and large, and will need serious pruning next spring; it’s sort of taken over the area and is shading some other plants too much.

species roses

Our rosa blanda, red species rose and taller yellow species rose to the right. It blooms earlier than the others, so we have color from early May through September.

Another disadvantage is that if you love to cut long rose stems to use the blooms in flower arrangements, you won’t enjoy these varieties as much as hybrid tea roses; their stems are typically shorter. However, if you want to walk or sit next to them in your garden and stop to smell them, or simply enjoy the beauty of the plant and blooms, you can have your roses and save water too!

Water Under, Not Over, a Plant

For water conservation and plant health, the smartest xeric strategy is to water the roots of the plant and avoid watering the plant’s leaves.

Let’s look at the water savings first: Water evaporates when exposed to air, and occurs at the water surface area. The smaller a drop of water, the higher the percentage of the drop’s surface area. Add the effect of wind on tiny drops of water from sprinklers and you might as well just pour that water down the drain. And if you irrigate a plant from above or with sprinklers and spray emitters, much of the water lands on the leaves, where it can evaporate. In fact, water constantly evaporates from a plant’s leaves as it is, in a process called transpiration. It’s a plant’s natural way of cooling off on hot summer days.

herb garden drip irrigation

Cascading or spraying water is for fountains and lawns, not for plants. Note at least three inconspicuous, but efficient, drip emitters in this herb garden.

Feed a plant’s roots

It’s much better for a plant to take new water in through the plant’s roots, where the water picks up soil nutrients and works its way up the trunk and stems back to the leaves to do its cooling and feeding work. There’s another reason not to spray water on plant leaves, especially late in the day or during cloudy, humid weather: wet leaves can harm many plants.

Fungal diseases such as powdery mildew on roses or apple scab on apple trees and crabapples is partly a result of water on the leaves. Sometimes, there is nothing a gardener can do. We have an old pear tree with some scab that likely came from spores in old leaves left on the ground and a week or more of cool, cloudy and humid weather in late spring.

pear scab on leaves

We don’t water this old tree near the river, but an unusually cool and damp late spring caused this brown spotting, which I believe is pear scab. It was worse on lower leaves on the northeast side of the tree, but seems to have stopped progressing. And the young pears don’t look too bad!

Change how you irrigate

Often, simply changing irrigation practices can improve a plant’s health. When we first moved to a home in Albuquerque many years ago, the previous owner had installed sprayheads in all of the flowerbeds. We eventually had to replace all of them with bubblers and rework the plantings. Bubblers or drip irrigation might have required a little more planning, better leveling of the soil and more parts or emitters. But in the end, the homeowner would have saved money on his water bill and I bet on plants! Farmers know this is the way to go, and many are learning new ways to improve irrigation techniques to reduce water use.

subsurface drip irrigation

A micro subsurface drip irrigation system was used in this demonstration project in Texas. Click on the image, which is courtesy of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, to learn more about the project.

We recently visited a nursery in search of tomato cages and noted that the tomato plants they still had in stock looked awful, even though they had a few large fruits on the plants. I thought at first it was too shaded in the greenhouse, but then Tim noticed the cause: an overhead spray watering system. The leaves were spotted and nearly goldish-brown in color. I don’t know how they are healthy enough to continue feeding the plants. Granted, these plants have been in the greenhouse way past the typical time, and there are many more than you would have to deal with in your garden. Still, it seems to me they would sell more tomato plants if they watered differently.

rose water pail

Roses are especially vulnerable to powdery mildew and need deep watering at the roots. The only time I spray roses is to rid them of aphids. I use a fairly strong water spray early on a sunny day.

And in case I haven’t convinced you, here’s yet another reason to water with drip emitters or by hand near the roots of a plant instead of broadcast or spray irrigation: weeds. When you spray water, you water everything around, including weed seeds. Watering only around your vegetables’ or ornamentals’ roots confines weed growth, making it easier to pick small weeds out by hand.

hose watering tomato

It takes more time to water my vegetable garden by hand, but the hose from our rain barrel waters the plants deeply and just at the roots while I weed.

As I said before, you can’t control rain, which obviously comes from overhead. But keeping plants exposed to proper sun, trimmed and cleared to give them sun and airflow and cleaning out debris from around the bottom of trees and plants can help reduce risk of fungal diseases. Choose mulches carefully, depending on local recommendations for a given plant.

Update Your Hardiness Zone

In 2012, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) updated its cold hardiness zones. Farmers, suppliers and home gardeners use the zone designations to help standardize how well a plant can survive at average extreme minimum temperatures. In the new iteration, the USDA added two new warm zones to reflect areas in which the average low stays above 50 degrees (if only!). Of course, the zones are restricted to tropical areas of the country, such as Hawaii. Several zone boundaries also shifted to reflect warmer temperatures in several zones from the 30 years of data collection.

Maui view

If only I lived in Maui, where the zones are more like 10 to 13 and the landscape is so lush.

Read what you want from the shifts in zones, though the USDA is quick to point out that climate change trends require 50 to 100 years of data collection, and zone changes are not reliable evidence of whether there is global warming.

At any rate, if you haven’t checked your USDA zone in a few years, it’s a good idea to look again and see if it’s shifted. The USDA has given you another reason to check. The scale has fine resolution and GIS technology. This means that between your ZIP code and GIS location, you can have more accurate data to reflect the effects of, say, urban streets and buildings on your townhouse patio. It’s huge for someone like me who lives in a rural area and seldom receives accurate weather data, for instance, unless I collect it in my own back yard. The map recognized my location and pinpointed my zone accordingly as 6B.

USDA hardiness zones

Here’s a simplified image of the USDA hardiness zones. Visit the USDA site (by clicking on the image) for more detail on your zone.

Cold hardiness is not the only factor to consider, though, especially for xeriscaping. Altitude affects temperature, but also contributes to drying of plants. And wind, well, don’t get me started. I will say that wind dries a plant out and does plenty of damage to new plantings or houseplants you’re beginning to bring outdoors. You also have to consider soil and microclimates, such as those on the city balcony. On a broader scale, valley or riverbank climates differ from those of mountains or open plains.

Within your xeric garden, you can push a zone slightly by adding plenty of warmth to a plant when you place light-colored gravel under it or plant it near a south-facing wall. Or help out a plant that needs a zone cooler by putting it under the shade of a tree or on the north side of your home. Just be sure to check tags for plant hardiness zone before buying, especially from catalogs, online or in big-box stores.

potentilla and rocks

South-facing rocks keep this Ephedra in the foreground and transplanted cinquefoil (Potentilla fruitcosa) nice and warm.

Garden Project: Harvesting Lavender

Lavender is without a doubt my favorite drought-tolerant plant. Aside from its stunning appearance in the garden, it’s a fragrant herb. We added 15 lavender plants to our garden last year, and some of them failed to make it, mostly because of unseasonably cool and moist spring weather. But most of the survivors are now thriving and we have plans to expand our lavender “operation,” because once you get it started, it’s just so darn easy to grow.

lavender blooms

Close-up of Hidcote Superior English Lavender blooms. The stems of ours did not get very long, but I believe it will do better next year. I love the deep purple color.

If you cut off the first blooms of the season, lavender plants reward you with another late-season show. Yesterday, I decided to harvest some of the flowering buds to dry them for possible potpourris, bundles, and other gifts and to encourage the second wave of blooms. It was great fun!

To experiment with drying stems, buds and leaves, I cut some short stalks from newer plants that were not long enough to dry as bundles. They’ll make great potpourri or sachets, assuming I am smart and industrious enough to figure out how. I included a pretty established white lavender that’s been in the garden for years.

tools used to harvest lavender

Tools for my first attempt at lavender harvesting: our notebook with records of lavender planting, rubber bands, large paper clips opened up, and tags to mark bundles.

Some of the stems are too short to hang and I don’t want to waste any buds that might fall. I’ve heard of using paper bags, and remembered I could never bring myself to throw out the bags my espresso beans come in. They were the perfect size and already have a sturdy top that’s easy to close and hook onto for hanging. I cut holes in the sides of the bags for ventilation and marked the plant and date on the bag. One concern I have is that the bags still smell (deliciously) like coffee, so I wonder if the lavender inside will blend with that aroma. Worst case? Lavender lattes! Seriously, I might try it.

But I really love the look of dried stem bundles, and six of our one-year-old plants have produced a good crop of long stems. I went ahead and harvested stems from one of them. The trick to gathering long stems is this: You want the length to maximize the look and aroma, so it helps to cut all the way down to the plant’s round shape of existing foliage. But I realized after cutting that I removed many tiny, new flower buds down the stem. That might affect the number of blooms in the second round. We’ll see how the late-summer bloom on this plant compares with the next one I harvest.

xeric English lavender

One-year-old Royal Velvet English lavender blooming away in a xeric garden. There are two more next to it. The other purple to the left is from volunteer Larkspur.

lavender after stems harvested

Same plant after I harvested all of the stems. In retrospect, I should have left some on the plant that hadn’t quite opened. But I guess the symmetry before and after appeals to me more. I even trimmed it to make it nice and round again.

Out of one (one-year-old) Royal Velvet English Lavender, I was able to make a respectably sized bundle and a smaller bundle to take to friends I was having a picnic with that later in the day. I also stripped some of the leaves and tiny buds from down the stem and placed them in a coffee bag for even more yield from the plant.

lavender harvest

Here’s my yield for the day: a long and short stem from the Royal velvet plant, plus a bag of “remnants,” a bag of white lavender buds, and one bag each from the Hidcote and a young Munstead, both too short to bundle but just as aromatic.

The day before, I had hammered several nails into the beams of our old shed. It’s dry and has good ventilation. It’s not completely dark, which might be the drawback. I used rubber bands to hold the bundle together, and opened up large paper clips to secure the rubber band or the bag tops to the nail. I also slipped a small piece of cut-up old business cards into the bundle’s rubber band with the plant and date and hung it upside down. They should take about a week to dry.

drying lavender in shed

I knew this shed would be good for more than storage! All it took was nails, paper clips and coffee bags.

Xeriscaping Strategy: Natural Hardscaping

Any home gardener can create an attractive landscape without filling the entire lawn with lush turf and plants. Having said that, you can achieve a lush lawn with low-water plantings. Add some hardscaping, or built and paved areas, and you’ve got interest and function, a palette for the plants’ colors and textures.

cosmos and rocks in garden

These tiny cosmos flowers came up from seed. They might have gotten pulled in another spot, but they look so good contrasted against these large rocks.

But here’s the rub – and this month’s rant about people who take xeriscaping to the extreme – hardscaping does not mean that you tear out every living blade of grass, and kill (intentionally or unintentionally) every root of every living plant in your yard. In other words, don’t replace the entire landscape with pavement and rocks. In the end, you and your house will be hot, and the only roots that will survive – somehow – will be those of annoying weeds.

You can use rocks quite effectively in a xeric landscape, along with other natural elements. I use the term “natural hardscaping” because if you use found elements from nature, you spend less money and maintain the sort of natural look that many xeric landscapes feature so well. In other words, store-bought pavers have their place, as do concrete and gravel. But I believe they have limited, specific uses, and it’s more fun to add some found elements, such as interesting rocks to your garden.

rocks in xeric garden

This large xeric garden has pavers lining the outside, but a natural rock wall along the inside.

You don’t have to water rocks, and they can fill or delineate spaces or offset and draw attention to xeric plants. Other great found objects are pieces of wood from old trees (or driftwood), seashells and old metal objects or collectibles that can weather the outdoors. From a practical standpoint, you can use rocks to help well or shore up areas to control drainage, which is a great xeriscaping strategy.

Here are a few tips for using natural hardscaping to complement your xeric garden:

  • Rounded plants can soften the edges of hardscape materials, such as patio corners or steps. And shorter, round rocks look great behind tall, straight grasses, for instance.
using rocks in a xeric garden

This large, round rock looks great behind yellow evening primrose. The solar light bounces off of it at night.

  • Pea gravel is a great hardscaping element. It’s easier to walk on than larger rock gravel and can serve as mulch for plants that need little water and plenty of heat. You probably want to lay some landscape fabric under the pea gravel and be sure to layer it on thickly to prevent weeds, though.
  • Use your creativity, adding hardscape elements to make or line paths, for example. You might find rocks or leftover flagstone pieces large enough to bury for stepping stones. Tim placed a large, nearly flat rock under our faucet as a sort of foundation and splash guard.
rock bench in wall

This is a bench in a rock garden made from a huge found slab. It’s functional, and breaks up the round shape.

  • After making any change that replaces turf or plants with hardscaping, be sure to modify drainage and sprinkler systems to avoid wasting water.
  • Although wood can work well in the garden, it can sometimes rot or invite pests, such as carpenter ants. So try to use it where it can stay relatively dry or off the ground. Treated wood, such as old railroad ties, fares better.
rocks and wood in xeric garden

Creeping sedum planted in old fencepost, complete with rusted barbed wire. Rocks line a cactus area behind it.

  • Rock gardens look best when they appear as rocks might in nature. Burying a large rock a few inches down, and even slightly askew, looks much better than just setting it on top of the ground. Just like with plant selections, mix up rock colors, textures and sizes.

Xeric Plants That Attract Bees

Last week, I posted about the Million Pollinator Garden Challenge. If  you haven’t registered your garden yet, this week is a great time to participate. June 15 through 21 marks National Pollinator Week!

And if you feel your garden doesn’t meet the criteria for a pollinator garden or need some help attracting pollinators and saving water at the same time, read on. I’ve got a list of low-water plants that attract bees in particular.

vegetable garden near bee attractors

The ugly stucco buckets in this otherwise pretty sunset protect some tomatoes and other edibles I would like bees to visit. So I’m happy to have plenty of plants in the garden that attract pollinators.

Let’s first review a few reasons you want bees. Their numbers are dwindling, and the more homeowners and businesses that plant gardens to attract and nourish bees, the more we keep bee populations going. In your own garden, bees pollinate more than two-thirds of your flowers and edibles. Apples, cherries, beans, and other healthy and delicious crops in your yard or local farms need bees to produce their fruit or at least lend a hand, and not just in the height of summer. Gardens that provide bee-loving flowers from early spring until late fall help keep local populations thriving.

Here are a few low-water plants bees love:

  • Bee balm (Monarda “Jacob Kline”). You can’t go wrong with a selection named for the insect. To encourage the large, red flowers, you might have to give it some extra water, however.
  • Apache plume (Fallugia paradoxa). I’ve mentioned native or wild roses before. The Apache plume is a member of the rose family, but is more shrubby, partially evergreen, native, forgiving to heavy trimming or shaping, and needs no water once established. Bees love the small white flowers.
bee on apache plume flower

The pretty white flower of the xeric Apache plume.

  • Thyme. If you allow culinary herbs to flower, bees often go wild. We have thyme in our garden that flowered early this year and is a big attractor. When rosemary blooms, bees swarm all over it.
  • Sage. Bees also flock to culinary sage. I don’t mind letting some of my herbs flower because I have space. If your space is limited, you might want to cut herbs back (and use them in the kitchen). Pruning makes them healthier, as long as you don’t cut into the woody stems. I prefer to keep a few plants trimmed for culinary use, often in containers, and a few wilder for color (and pollinators).  Other sages, such as salvia, also bring bees to your garden.
culinary sage with bees

I caught this bee buzzing toward one of the pretty purple flowers on a culinary sage.

  • Onion (Allium) is a popular low-water edible that comes in an ornamental variety called Cokscrew blue twister that attracts bees with its pink flowers.
  • Pink lamb’s ear (Stachys lavandulifolius). A xeric wildflower that has fuzzy gray leaves and pink flowers to attract bees.
  • Catmint (Nepeta) has a bluish-purple flower and a strong scent. The low-growing plant can be invasive, however.
catmint for bees

Catmint lines our front walkway, which means so do bees! The plant needs no water, but spreads prolifically.

  • Alyssum. If you’ve read my past posts, I have bemoaned this invasive wildflower/weed. But I will say this much: Bees can’t get enough of the pungent blooms, and we probably fed enough honeybees from our yellow land alone in early spring to pollinate half of the desert Southwest!

Fruit trees also attract bees while flowering and there are plenty of vines and shrubs that draw bees to the garden. Carolina jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens) is a low-water, fragrant choice and Coral honeysuckle (Lonicera semperivirens) uses little water and handles heat and cold. Be aware of vine and shrub spread when you place them, especially regarding be buzzing!

Check with your local nursery for more native or xeric bee attractors that thrive in your area. My Resources page lists a few sellers of xeric plants, or try this National Garden Bureau member listing.

Help Plants Beat the Summer Heat

It’s hot here. I thought I would never say that. And sure, it’s not as hot as Phoenix, but even mountain communities in the Southwest can warm up in summer months. When the temperatures hit the 90s, the humidity stays below 25 percent, and the winds never subside, vegetables and ornamental plants get stressed.

columbine northeastern exposure

In May, this columbine was blooming and healthy! It’s a little stressed now. Columbines grow naturally under the shade of trees, and they need deep water as temperatures rise into the 70s and higher. We mulched around the plant and put it in a northeast-facing location to help it survive summer.

Often, our first reaction is to throw more water on a plant. Sometimes, that’s what they need. Wind, sun and heat dry plants more quickly. Native xeric plants are adapted to take some of the parching sun and wind, and sometimes a gardener can overwater a plant. Here are a few tips to keep xeric plants cool, healthy and happy during the heat of summer:

  • Start with the right plant for the right spot. That means not only a native selection, but choosing sun vs. shade or the right drainage. Most xeric plants can take plenty of sun, but some need partial shade. And most don’t take kindly to wet feet, or roots that fail to dry between watering. Wet feet can happen with overwatering or if you place lavender in poorly draining soil at the bottom of a hill, or hide it under a bush that grows quickly and shades it within a year. You also can plan ahead to take advantage of shade. It’s getting too hot for my lettuce, but we’ll plant some more north of the fence holding the pole beans as soon as they get a little taller.
garden plan for shade

The sun is so bright, it’s reflecting off the spot where we hope to get some shade for lettuce and spinach. You can see the bean seedlings on the other side of the foreground fence shadow.

  • Follow the sun. When you plant in spring, the sun and shade patterns are different than they will be in mid-July and August. So keep in mind the sun’s direction and any plants or structures that might help shade a plant late in the day, when the sun’s rays are their hottest. Remember that deciduous trees might be nearly bare when you plant, but loaded by mid-June.
  • When helping a new plant get established, the typical care instructions might not apply. The plant goes into a sort of shock, much like when you recover from illness or injury. All plants need a little more water, as well as extra sun and wind protection until established. We’ve often used portable lawn chairs to provide filtered shade over new plantings in the afternoon. Old sheets or landscape fabric also work.
  • Use containers. If you have a plant that’s more susceptible to heat stress, place it in a container. You can move it around throughout the summer based on the sun’s path. Of course, if you really love the plant and have lots of time on your hands (and wheels under a larger container), you can move it around during the day, giving it morning sun and afternoon shade.

    tomato in container

    The tomato seedlings I planted in containers are doing better than many in the ground. The patio and house warmed them up during cool nights, but provide shade now on hot afternoons.

  • Water in the morning. It’s tough to find time before work, but watering early in the day loads your plant up, preparing it for the heat. And try to keep soil evenly moist. If you have a slow drip system, the irrigation can run while you get ready for work. Cover the drip hose with a nice, thick layer of mulch and the mulch will slow the water’s evaporation and help keep the ground cool. And as I’ve said before, it’s good to keep an eye on tomatoes and other vegetables and to have someone care for them if you leave town. Once the fruit sets, you can’t drown the tomato to make up for a few days of heat and underwatering. They’ll punish you.

Finally, drink some iced tea, flavored with a small bit of fresh mint. Oh, wait, that’s for me…

Easy Rain Barrel Project: Collecting Rain from Shed Roof

For two years, I’ve watched rain pour off the roof of an old shed in our orchard and hated to see it go to waste. And our vegetable garden is only about 20 yards from the shed, so it just made sense to capture some of the water. This weekend, as storms approached, we got around to adding rain gutters to the back of the shed to catch some of the precious rain in a barrel.

old shed in New Mexico

I love this old shed. We use it for storage, but it had no rain gutters for all of the runoff.

First of all, this was a relatively easy and inexpensive project. We already had the barrel, which cost about $80, in the shed. One of the drawbacks of the barrel type is that it tends to leak along its outside seams. Tim caulked and duct taped it for safe measure. The gutter, outlet and brackets came to about another $60. We had old hoses to reuse.

shed rain barrel project

The metal gutter Tim bought matches the barrel and the shed, so it doesn’t affect the character of the shed much. We attached it to the joist beams along the back, just under the roof. See how close all that wasted water is to the garden?

Tim picked up two pieces of metal gutter, which covered most of the 24-foot roof, some slip joints to connect pieces, two end pieces and the outlet. The most time-consuming part of the project was bending the metal gutter pieces to fit together. Then we caulked them.

We used metal brackets to connect the gutter to joists on the shed. Some of the joists were beginning to rot at the top, so we connected the brackets to the strongest ones and then reinforced the gutter with screws in other spots.

attaching metal gutter to shed

Metal brackets secure the gutter on both sides every 18 inches or so.

We sat the barrel on a found, fairly flat rock for some ground clearance around the lower faucet control and plugged the other hole with PVC pipe (this barrel also had a busted faucet). I’ll only be needing the hose connection. The garden is downhill from the barrel, which makes the hose flow more easily. And we stacked a few rocks around the sides of the barrel to help with drainage and mud control from overflow.

Because the ground was so high in relation to the back of the shed, we haven’t bothered yet with a downspout; the outlet is only a few feet from the top of the barrel. We figured that if it missed, we could repurpose some old gutter we cut off the house when fitting barrels on it. But we found out that wasn’t necessary! When the rain came, it flowed right into the barrel and filled it up.

rain barrel filled

The barrel installed and filled to the brim after nearly an inch of rain later that day!

I realize this barrel won’t hold enough to water my garden all of the time, but it helps. And if it works well, we might chain another barrel to it next year. I don’t worry too much about using water from the metal roof on my vegetables. First, I water the soil, not the plant’s leaves. Second, there has been plenty of research done on safety of rain barrel water for edibles. We don’t have pollution where I live, and I’m using well water if I don’t use rain water, so it’s not like I’m choosing water from a roof over city tap water. I make sure I rinse all harvested food.

This was a fun, easy and rewarding project. With the rain we received, I haven’t had to use the stored water yet, but I’m sure I will need it by the end of the week!