Tag Archives: native plants

Roses in the Low-Water Garden

Roses are old-fashioned favorites that often remind gardeners of their mothers or grandmothers or of lush gardens in the South, where both water and sun were readily available from nature. But I see fewer roses in gardens now, partly because they’re associated with lots of patience and care, and partly because some of the hybrid roses need more water than a low-water garden can – and should – provide. It’s also strange to picture a tall, hybrid tea rose in the middle of a xeric landscape, although a good landscape designer can always work a small rose garden into your plan if that’s what you desire.

floribunda rose in low-water garden

Friends brought us this floribunda as a housewarming gift and it fits nicely in our xeric rose garden. We watered it the first year, but only a little this spring.

Many shrub-size roses fit in nicely with the look and purpose of a low-water garden. So you can have the scent and many other features of roses, as long as you’re willing to choose the right type of rose. Here are a few to consider:

Species roses. A species rose is basically a wild rose. Several species roses have grown to adapt to drought and other extreme conditions. I have several in my rose garden area, and I know one of them is a Wood’s rose (Rosa Woodsii). It can grow to at least 10 feet and has beautiful pink flowers, followed by hips all fall and winter, which the birds love. Another is a shorter, shrub-style rose that I believe is the Prairie rose (Rosa blanda), with pink flowers that fade to white in the center. The other has deep red flowers. Both have in common large, plentiful thorns and bunches of two-inch flowers in late spring.

woods rose bloom

Close-up of a Wood’s rose bloom. They’re small, but abundant on the plant’s long canes.

rosa blanda species rose

The wild Rosa blanda is only about 18 inches tall.

Native roses. In New Mexico and other Southwestern states, the Arizona Rosewood (Vauquelina californica), which resembles an evergreen oleander in its foliage and shape, or the Apache Plume (Fallugia paradoxica) both have delicate white flowers that resemble roses. The native plants have adapted to the Southwest and attract bees.

apache plume

This Apache plume (with the Wood’s rose in left background) got too dense and full. They are so easy to care for and forgiving when pruned.

Shrubs and groundcovers. Some hybrid roses have been adapted to grow as smaller shrubs and groundcovers. They’ll use less water and take up less space in the landscape. In general, they need less care than other rose types, but have long bloom periods.

Flower Carpet red

Flower Carpet Red from Tesselaar is a spreading groundcover rose that reaches no more than 32 inches high. It’s drought tolerant once established and hardy down to zone 5. Image courtesy of Tesselaar.

In fact, species, native and certain shrub or groundcover roses are all typically easier to care for and relatively disease free. Just give them mostly sun and prune according to recommendations once in early spring. You don’t have to continuously dead-head blooms, and they have adapted to lower water and the changing conditions of high deserts and mountains, so having them in your garden is more water wise. But there are a few disadvantages. The species roses are wild, which means they can sprout new canes or offshoots. The yellow one in our garden has gotten too thick and large, and will need serious pruning next spring; it’s sort of taken over the area and is shading some other plants too much.

species roses

Our rosa blanda, red species rose and taller yellow species rose to the right. It blooms earlier than the others, so we have color from early May through September.

Another disadvantage is that if you love to cut long rose stems to use the blooms in flower arrangements, you won’t enjoy these varieties as much as hybrid tea roses; their stems are typically shorter. However, if you want to walk or sit next to them in your garden and stop to smell them, or simply enjoy the beauty of the plant and blooms, you can have your roses and save water too!

Xeric Gardening Strategy: Saving Arid-Adopted Native Seeds

Across the nation and world, efforts are underway to save native seeds. For a number of reasons, seed banks or vaults have cropped up around the globe, some located underground, to store a variety of crop seeds. Some banks store seeds in the event of an apocalyptic event, even a natural one, that wipes out vegetation. Other reasons are simply to preserve the biodiversity of crops so they can continue to adapt to changing climate and conditions and to maintain the integrity of ancient, heirloom varieties during an age of hybridization and genetic modification.

There are more than 1,000 seed banks around the world, some private and some public. The U.S. government operates one in Fort Collins, Colo. In this and most seed storage facilities, the seeds are kept in cold storage, where they can survive for decades.

seeds in storage bank

Seeds in cold storage room at Native Seeds/SEARCH in Tucson.

In various seed banks are hundreds of thousands of plant species, some of which already face endangered status. Plants’ adaptation to various climates and conditions is important. For example, native plants I mention in my posts that have adapted to low water or drought probably wouldn’t survive in a tropical rainforest. On the other hand, only plants adapted to xeric conditions thrive during drought.

A few years ago, I had the privilege of visiting the Native Seeds/SEARCH seed conservation site in Tucson, Ariz. The program was started in 1983 as a way to help improve food security for the Tohono O’odham Nation, and has grown into an outstanding program that is helping conserve the biodiversity of arid native Southwestern crops.

ancient Native American corn

Ancient Native American corn grown in demonstration area at Native Seeds/SEARCH.

I got to see inside a preservation area, hear about the program and see evidence of some of the rare or endangered plants that Native Seeds has helped preserve. This past week, Native Seeds announced an initiative that allows supporters to “Adopt a Crop,” which helps pay to get seeds planted back in the ground. The program operates a conservation farm in Patagonia, Ariz., near the Arizona/Mexico border and sells many of the native seeds from their Tucson site and online. Many seed banks also provide education programs on how gardeners and farmers can harvest and preserve their own seeds.

native seeds

Buying and planting native, heirloom seeds supports preservation efforts.

Favorite Low-water Plant: Desert Zinnia

Although it’s a member of the zinnia family, the desert zinnia (Zinnia grandiflora) is remarkably different from the large annual flower we typically think of when we hear of a zinnia. Actually a member of the aster (Asteracaea) family, this tiny perennial is a delicate xeric groundcover or low shrub native to New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas.

desert zinnia flower

The desert zinnia has a big flower on needle-like leaves. I love how the flower sort of reflects the sun it loves.

Also called prairie zinnia or Rocky Mountain zinnia, the plant blooms in summer and its tiny, needle-like foliage dies back in the frost of winter, resembling dormant grass. But have no fear! The plant is there, and comes back, even spreading. I just brush up the dormant leaves as part of the spring garden clean-up, and new plants already are appearing underneath. You could also gently rake up the spent foliage in larger areas. Clearing off the old leaves exposes the new plants to more sun, which they love.

zinnia grandiflora shadow

This tiny desert zinnia is casting a morning shadow on the rock it grows from.

But although desert zinnia loves sun, it doesn’t love water. That’s right – once established, desert zinnia needs no water at all. Too much water just introduces weeds into the mix, which can be hard to pull from between the delicate foliage. If you have a period of no rain, you can give desert zinnia some water to ensure blooming. The flowers also do fine in partial shade.

desert zinnia in rocks

Desert zinnia will spread low across the ground or cascade down rocks. This weekend starts monsoon season, and I expect more blooms to appear.

Typically, the desert zinnia is about 4 inches high and spreads to nearly 15 inches wide. Each flower can reach nearly an inch in diameter, with an orange cone (Golden Eye) surrounded by three to six yellow petals. It should thrive in zones 5 through 8. It’s a great plant for erosion control and for rock gardens. I love how it cascades over and through our rock wall.

How To Identify Weeds in Your Garden

Identifying weeds might not rank up there with ridding the garden of the invaders, but it often drives me mad when I can’t identify a weed. It’s more important to know a weed from a desired plant or wildflower, so you know whether to leave it alone or destroy it before it spawns and takes over your garden.

So, how can you tell a weed from a flower? Here’s a definition I received from a weed scientist with New Mexico State University in their master gardener training materials: “A weed is any plant that interferes with the management objectives for a particular site or situation.” That’s actually a brilliant definition (must be because he is an expert). Here’s why:

One gardener’s weed is another gardener’s favorite fauna, but with some caveats. In other words, if you love dandelion flowers and want to leave them in your garden, then maybe dandelions are not a weed. If you leave purslane to grow because it’s an edible weed (as are parts of the dandelion), then more power to you. But if the purslane begins to cover your thyme or the dandelion chokes out the small area of grass you have in your lawn, do you shift them into the “Weed” column?

mexican hat

Mexican hat (Ratibida columnifera) seeds all over our garden. It’s a fun summer flower, but was recently host to what looked like baby cucumber beetles. It also grows tall and blocks sun and air from getting to nearby plants. I pulled a bunch of them.

Another way to look at it is to peg a weed according to some criteria set by the Weed Science Society of America. According to their site, weeds have common characteristics, including:

  • Production of way more seeds than normal – up to tens of thousands from a single plant.
weed seeds in garden

No, we didn’t scatter feathers on the ground. Those are weed seeds, in a bed we worked on at least twice. There’s also an elm tree sprouting — extra credit if you spot it.

  • Long survival time for seeds, which can remain dormant in soil until just the right weather or other condition triggers growth.
  • Rapid establishment (yes, they really can crop up nearly overnight).
  • Mechanisms that support easy spread.
  • Ability to grow in places where other plants can’t, such as between rocks or in poor, dry soil.
field bindweed

Field bindweed, aka wild morning glory. Sure, give it a pretty, regular name. It grows anywhere, and especially loves rocks AND rose trunks so it can hide before it chokes the life out of the poor rose.

If you look at the one attribute that all of the points above have in common, it’s this: survival. I can’t count how many times we’ve sowed some flower or vegetable seed at just the right depth, watered it regularly and checked daily. Nothing. But weeds – they keep returning for encores, even when you try to destroy them!

Aside from persistence, the ability to outcompete nearly any plant and your best efforts to remove it, there are a few other ways to tell  a weed from a regular plant when you’re examining it in your garden. For example, the characteristics that help weeds spread their seeds might show in their appearance. Hooks, spines and stickers make them harder to pull. And some have adapted attractive flowers to fool gardeners. A tap root often is a sign of a weed, or at least a plant’s survivability. You can pull and pull, but if you break the root off, it comes back and is somehow stronger than ever. Rhizomes or stolons also help weeds spread just underground, especially grassy weeds. And some weeds have asexual properties so that they can reproduce plenty of new plants with no floral fertilization.

dandelion in gravel

Dandelions have telltale spiny leaves, a tap root and lots of seeds after flowering.

In short, if a plant is wrapping around another plant, cropping up on, under or around a plant so that it affects your desired plant’s ability to use sun and water, call it a weed. We have some gorgeous volunteer wildflowers that come up each year in our garden, but we don’t keep all of them. If they crowd out another plant or cause so much shade around roots that a rose gets fungal during the monsoon season, they’ve got to go. I’ll keep a few of them, which means I’ll have to thin again in the future. But I won’t call them a weed.

I’ll post some of the worst New Mexico offenders in the future. For now, if you need help identifying weeds, check out the tool and external links under the WSSA’s Weeds section on their menu. I’ve also posted some new links on my Resources page.

Got Bees? Join the Million Pollinator Garden Challenge

The number of honey bees and other pollinating insects is declining around the United States. Colony collapse disorder and other diseases, along with increased pesticide, use are likely culprits. What’s more, monarch butterfly populations have been declining by the millions!

butterflies on ivy blooms

We were stuck with ivy around all of our walls at our last home. We pulled out any that was rooted on our side of the fence. It’s not xeric and it is invasive, but butterflies flocked to the blooms.

On May 19, President Obama announced steps aimed at improving the health of pollinating insects. And in response, the National Pollinator Garden Network issued the Million Pollinator Garden Challenge. According to the network, pollinators help generate one out of three bites of food we eat each year. Planting plenty of trees and flowers that attract bees, butterflies, birds and bats can help improve pollinator health and populations.

The challenge calls on homeowners, businesses and communities to create and sustain gardens that attract pollinators. Let me just say that this is another concern I have about extreme xeriscaping, or a trend I see of replacing every bit of plant and lawn in a landscape with gravel. New Mexico, for one, is barren enough. And there are plenty of xeric plants that attract birds, bees and other insects and provide some color in the landscape.

maximilian sunflower

Maximilian sunflower (Helianthus maximiliani) is a native, low-water prairie flower that bees love. I love its late-season blooms.

According to the Million Pollinator Garden Challenge, a pollinator garden should:

  • Include plants that provide nectar and pollen sources.
  • Provide water for pollinators.
  • Be in a sunny location with some wind breaks.
  • Have large areas of pollinator-attracting plants that are native and noninvasive.
  • Include plants that bloom throughout the season.
  • If possible, eliminate pesticide use, and at least minimize pesticides.

If your garden already meets the criteria, I encourage you to go to the challenge’s website and add your garden to the map.

And here are a few tips for meeting the challenge, or at least for making sure you have plenty of bees, butterflies and other pollinators in your garden:

  • Of course, including native, low-water plants is critical. Look for symbols in product catalogs or lists of xeric pollinators. And remember bees love herbs too. They buzz all around our thyme when it flowers, and there are roses and other flowering ornamentals pollinators love that need nothing but rainwater once established.
woods rose attracting bees

This woods rose had bees all over it the other morning. It’s a native, wild rose that’s xeric.

  • Some people avoid plants that attract bees because of possible stings, especially with children around. I have a few plants that attract seemingly hundreds, and one we walk past constantly. But if bees bother you, just place your pollinator plants where you can see them, but in a spot you seldom sit or walk by, and not where the kids’ soccer ball always ends up when they play in the back yard.
  • Providing water can be tough. Our birdbath dries up in a day or two, and I hate to refill it, knowing it will evaporate. But I can use rain water. The birds also gather on the top of our rain barrels, where the water sometimes pools. Butterflies need only a few drops in a tiny rock or plate.
  • Some native plants bloom continuously with no effort on your part. Look for those! An example is catmint (Nepeta). And create a dense grouping with a mix of colors and bloom times to attract pollinators, especially if you have limited space. A few annuals can provide blooms when perennials fade. We have cosmos that pop up late in summer and birds balance on the thin stalks, gathering seeds.
yarrow and gallardia

Moonshine yarrow (Achillea millefolium) is a perfect pollinator. It blooms all season and has a flat surface for easy landing! Bees also love the annual blanket flower (Gallardia)

  • One of the great benefits of inviting pollinators with flowering plants is that they should make a side trip to your edibles. Don’t be afraid to plant some flowers near vegetables, as long as they don’t compete for sun and water or hide weeds.
  • If your roses or other plants get aphids, wash the tiny bugs off with a fine spray of water in the morning before turning to a pesticide; it’s just not necessary. Spray again in a few days if more return. And try to stick with pesticides on your edibles that are least harmful to honeybees, such as insecticidal soap.

Start Small on Your Xeric Landscape

If you’re not an experienced gardener or feel overwhelmed by the prospect of starting a landscape from scratch or switching your entire landscape to a xeric one, why not start small?

Time, money and inexperience should not keep gardeners from enjoying a few plants in their yard. I sometimes can’t stop bemoaning the trend in believing that xeriscaping is the same as “zeroscaping.” Again, it’s not!

Even new, young gardeners and urban dwellers can enjoy a few blooms or edibles without busting their budgets, schedules or water resources. Try these tips:

  • Start with containers. If you have little space, but crave fresh herbs, enjoy a few bright blooms next to you while you savor your morning coffee outside. Or enjoy the view of hummingbirds hovering over a flower by outfitting your patio or balcony with a few brilliant containers. You could add a long, thin box with your favorite low-water kitchen herbs and a tall, round container with a salvia for color and pollinator interest. Or try a geranium, which uses a little more water, but lasts year-round in your container if you bring it indoors to a sunny location.
mint and lettuce containers

Mint in a container — where it belongs! Friends gave us these two transplants. That’s a baby mesclun lettuce mix to the right.

  • Take it one area or bed at a time. If the idea of going completely xeric in your garden is too much to handle at once, take baby steps. Convert a small area of your lawn from grass to gravel and native plants, or from high-water grass to native grass, gravel and native plantings. Or take out grass along a sidewalk or driveway and create a path with a few ornamental grasses and perennials. An easy way to conserve water is to divert rain from a downspout that pours onto, say, a driveway so that the water instead flows to a tree already in your landscape. Find plans for dry river beds with rocks to ensure the water flows to your tree.
  • Choose one or two hardy xeric perennials a year. I’m not the best person to advise patience, but if you’re short on budget and time, choose just a few hardy xeric plants to start your garden off right. The best choices depend on where you live and your USDA zone, along with the microclimate for the location you plan for the plant. Choose a perennial, a plant that will live through your winter and bloom again for at least two years. If this is an early attempt at gardening for you, go to a local nursery, where the staff can show you a few natives for your area that are hardy and easier to grow. Then go by size, bloom color, water and sun needs, maybe overall care (like deadheading) and your general reaction to the plant. There’s nothing wrong with choosing two of the same plant if you love it. Repetition can be just as attractive in a xeric landscape as complementing textures and colors!
dianthus perennial

This Dianthus next to our bird fountain needs little care and no supplemental watering, but comes back each year. In fact, a new plant showed up in another bed about 15 feet from this one.

  • Buy seeds instead of annual plants. This early in the year, at least in most zones, you still can have plenty of success with seeds for annuals to complement your perennials. There are tons of great xeric wildflower choices that grow from seeds, saving you lots of money. Instead of buying several six-packs of petunias or marigolds, pick up a seed packet of cosmos, zinnias, poppies or a native wildflower mix. Seeds need more attention and watering at first, but the flowers usually reseed for several years. And even though seeds in packet eventually expire, we’ve had success with old flower seeds.
blue flax

I can see this stunning blue flax (Linum lewisii) from my office. The damp spot on the ground is an area of red flax seeds we sowed.

Of course, if you can go big, do it. There are plenty of professionals, books and sites dedicated to xeric landscaping.

Another Reason to Plant Natives: No Soil Amendment Needed

Where I live in New Mexico, the soil is more alkaline than acidic. That means I might as well forget ever trying to grow blueberries, but asparagus is a great choice. We even found some old or wild stalks along our ditch bank last year.

And a soil’s pH balance is just one consideration. Soil texture and drainage are especially important to a plant’s success in a vegetable, herb or ornamental garden. If we didn’t add some organic matter to our vegetable garden each year, the soil would compact from foot traffic and lose nutrients from its work feeding plants. So each year, we work the soil with mushroom compost to keep it rich, water absorbent and well draining.

amended soil for vegetables and herbs

This is part of our ornamental garden, amended with organic matter to grow edibles this year.

Native plants

I couldn’t – and wouldn’t – rework my ornamental garden soil each year. For one, it would be nuts to dig up perennial plants! So gardeners often are advised to add a little bit of compost to the hole dug for a new tree, bush or flowering plant. The compost enriches the soil around the roots, and as long as you water as suggested in the first year or so of more rapid growth and root set, the plant should thrive. But what happens as the plant grows beyond your amendment, especially if you put in a rapidly growing shrub or tree? Eventually, the roots work their way into the soil you haven’t amended. If the soil is so poor or compacted that the roots can’t break through or thrive, the plant could be stressed at the least.

If you choose a native plant, especially for a xeric garden, it’s likely that you won’t have to amend the soil at all. A plant that is adapted to your area’s typical soil makeup will do better if you just loosen the soil around it, usually to an area at least three times larger than the root ball. No need to add anything.

chocolate flower in New Mexico rock garden

The chocolate flower (Berlandiera lyrata) is a native to our region. It crops up from seed around our garden and lawn. And yes, the blooms smell like chocolate! That’s a rosemary in the right foreground.

If plant instructions, or one article or expert tell you to add to the soil, it helps to verify the information with another source. That’s especially true if installing a native plant in your xeric garden. And it’s even truer depending on the first source of advice. There are plenty of reputable sources, and then there are myths, many of which can be perpetuated by those who stand to profit.

lavender in rocky soil

We placed several lavender plants in one of our beds, and maybe should have tested the soil first. Lavender is native to the Mediterranean, where the soil is rocky and alkaline. So it grows well here, but this soil had compacted more than we realized.That and some some cool, wet weather gave our plants a rocky start! Lesson learned.

When amending

It’s also good to check local sources when amending soil. For example, you might hear that adding sand improves drainage, but if you add too little sand, or add sand to clay soil, you can make matters worse, and your soil sets up like concrete. Oh, those poor plant roots…

Most organic matter is good for soil, but plenty of myths abound there as well. For example, manure needs to cook down or compost with brown materials before throwing it on your vegetables. Wood ash is often touted as an amendment, but not in New Mexico, where the soil already is alkaline. Wood ashes also are high in salt. I talked about Epsom salts in a previous post. The bottom line? Get local advice from a few good sources, and if you go with native xeric selections, you probably won’t have to amend the soil unless you have a severely compacted or poorly draining area.

 

A Trip to Hondo Iris Farm

It’s hard to imagine that an ornamental with such a strong, tall stalk and such large, gorgeous and multicolored blooms could be a low- to medium-water plant. But once established, the iris can get by and bloom with little care and water.

bearded iris

A lavender-colored bearded iris with morning dew.

When we visited Portland several years ago, we stopped by a magnificent iris farm and I couldn’t stop taking photos or making a wish list of colors and cultivars. But I couldn’t have known then that I would soon live about 15 to 20 minutes from a pretty magnificent iris garden, even though I’d be in the drier, cooler climate of southeastern New Mexico.

I visited the Hondo Iris Farm for the second time last week, this time with friends from Ruidoso. The flowers were in full bloom, and it was a beautiful spring day. The farm is stocked with impressive rows of more than 400 iris varieties. I found myself once again snapping photo after photo and wishing I had more space and water for flowers in my yard!

rows of iris

A few of the rows of iris at the Hondo Iris Farm, which hit full bloom around Mother’s Day each year.

What also impressed me about this visit was the fact that the Hondo Iris Farm grows plenty of low-water plants native to the Hondo Valley and nearby Ruidoso. I spotted several trees and ornamentals familiar to me, along with displays of several succulents. The farm sells several plants from a small greenhouse on the property that will thrive locally.

agave at iris garden

Agave garden at Hondo Iris farm. A red hot poker (Kniphofia uvaria) adds color in the background, as do several iris!

If it’s iris you’re after, you can place your order from a catalog in the farm’s gift shop or by viewing it online. You might not be able to buy the very iris you drool after on your visit; they limit their catalog to about 50 or 60 cultivars each year. Still, it’s a great selection and price. I ordered a few for July delivery. Later this summer, I’ll divide my iris to move some to the back yard and make room for my new bulbs!

Hondo Iris Farm garden sculpture

We enjoyed the Hondo Iris Farm for the iris, native plants and general layout and beauty.

The Hondo Iris Farm is on Hwy 70 in southeastern New Mexico at mile marker 284. It’s just west of the small town of Hondo and the intersection of highways 70 and 380, about 20 minutes from Ruidoso and less than 40 minutes from Roswell. Admission is free to the garden, which is open Tuesday through Saturday from 8 am to 5 pm.

Use Plant Finders and Identifiers to Plan Your Xeric Garden

So you want to plan a xeric garden, or begin converting your garden to a low-water design. It can seem overwhelming at first. You can call in a xeric landscaping professional, especially for a big job. But to make small changes, you mostly need help finding good replacements. For example, what’s a low-water plant with red blooms that enjoys a mix of sun and shade?

Enter a plant finder. Most let you select any number of fields or filters, and many also provide searches in both common and botanical names.

deep red iris bloom

OK, so we all know this is an iris. That’s all I know so far, because it bloomed for the first time a week ago. I just had to include a photo of it in some post.

Plant identification tools also help, but I find they work best if they have several photos – at least one close-up shot of foliage and flowers, and another full shot of the plant. You’ll use identification often if you pay attention to plants as you drive around your town or neighborhood, or spot a great specimen in a friend’s lawn. Your friend may have no idea of the plant’s name. Here is a short list of plant ID and plant finder sources:

Identify Plants Online

One of my favorite Southwest sources for xeric and high-desert selections just added a plant finder. Plant Select provides a dozen fields, including water needs and deer resistance, important considerations for me.

plant Select plant finder

Screen shot of the Plant Select plant finder. It’s got plenty of filters to help you plan your xeric garden.

The National Gardening Association also includes an extensive plant finder on its site, which lets you select USDA zone.

Finally, for a more scientific approach, go to the USDA site. I’ve had more luck there with the scientific name, but that’s pretty easy to find with a good online search of a plant’s common name.

Plant Identification Apps

I love plant ID apps, because I always have my phone with me in the garden. The problem is tracking down good one with Southwest plants. So far, the only one I’ve found that’s free, dedicated to xeriscaping and accurate for my area is SW Plants. It’s from New Mexico State University. If anyone out there knows of a better one for xeriscaping, I welcome input!

SW plants plant finder

SW Plants app on my phone. The search works well for the 750 xeric plants included.

 

SW plants app zinnia photo

The photos in the SW Plants app are pretty nice, but small on my phone.

In addition, Audubon has apps for wildflowers and trees. Otherwise, as in most cases, content comes from and focuses on the northeastern and southeastern portions of the country…

Remember Books?

We have some gardening books. In fact, a shelf of our sitting room is lined with them. And I often can identify a plant by consulting several of them. Sure, sometimes a Google search is quicker, but it’s too hard to rely on images posted by people using common names to identify a plant. So it might be a good place to start, but books local to your area are best. My favorites for this area are the Sunset Western Garden Book (keeping in mind that Sunset assigns its own zones) and Judith Philips’ New Mexico Gardener’s Guide. Any book on native plants and wildflowers for your state or region is priceless as well.

shelf of gardening books

Got gardening books? Many books have older, dull photos or illustrations, so check out photos before buying.

Keep Current Catalogs

Catalogs are excellent resources, especially for planning your garden each year! We save a few of the most recent from our favorite suppliers, and often can either identify a plant we already have or see somewhere nearby, or plan our garden each spring with the catalog’s help. They have the best photos, if you’re willing to spend time leafing through pages. It’s one of our favorite activities with coffee on spring mornings!

I recently helped a friend identify a gorgeous wildflower she spotted on a hike in Los Alamos, using a combination of our catalog from Plants of the Southwest and an online search. Our other favorite catalog arrives regularly from High Country Gardens.

Another Reason to Weed Your Garden: Water Savings

If you’re like me, you hate the sight of weeds in your ornamental or vegetable garden, and you have permanently discolored cuticles from April through September.

Weeds are more than unsightly, however. Ask any farmer, who knows that weeds can reduce their crop yields by at least 50 percent by simply robbing crops of water. Although weeds can seemingly grow out of rocks, parched dirt or sand, they still compete with surrounding plants for water. Weeds also host bugs and diseases and can block sun or air circulation to important plants. For example, if a tall weed shades your bell pepper plant, the plant is less able to compete for water and nutrients and less likely to produce as many peppers. Some weeds even introduce chemicals that are toxic to certain plants, animals and people.

Weed growing in middle of sage

This culinary sage has a weed growing up through the middle of it. The weed’s tap root likely steals rain water from the sage.

Are you hating weeds as much as I do yet? There are those who tout their benefits. A few weeds provide nectar for bees or help supply organic matter to soil. And as I’ve mentioned before, there is a fine line between weeds and wildflowers. Our widespread alyssum invasion each spring adds early color and brings hundreds of bees to our land.

Further, several weeds are edible. Examples that come to mind are dandelions and purslane. But I really prefer carrots and cucumbers.

According to Robert Parker, Ph.D., of Washington State University’s Cooperative Extension Center, it’s more important to control weeds during drought than during typical years. And some common weeds consume more water than typical crops. An example is Russian thistle, which Parker said removed nearly 18 gallons of water per plant while competing with a spring wheat crop. The thistle is just one of the weeds we are trying to attack here on our property and a priority throughout Lincoln County, N.M.

thistle weed

This thistle (to the upper left of Buster) is growing in our ditch, along with a horehound and numerous other weeds. I need to grub it before it goes to seed.

Parker says that crops are most affected by weeds during early growth. So home gardeners are best served by prepping their gardens carefully to start out with a clean slate and to handpick weeds until their backs give out. Seriously, it’s always best to keep weeds under control without chemicals if possible. That’s especially true during a drought, because most herbicides require water to work effectively.

In fact, weeds are the ultimate native plant! They adapt to drought by developing ways to retain moisture in their tap roots or waxy layers on leaves. When drought affects grass growth on rangelands, more weeds move in and establish squatters’ rights. That’s what seems to have happened to us. We now have a proliferation of several weeds, and especially horehound (Marrubium vulgare).  Horehound grows best in dry soil, and I’ve seen it growing in the worst places possible.

horehound

Horehound, which is considered a good plant or an awful weed.

From what I can tell, horehound spreads by seed, but also has runner-type roots and maybe spreads just by magic. It’s in the Lamiaceae, or mint, family. Need I say more about its invasive qualities? And although a noxious weed in some areas, horehound also is considered one of those “good” weeds, having both medicinal properties and use as an edible for tea or candy. But I point to the “vulgare” portion of its name. If it continues to take over our grass, I might give in and learn how to make the vulgar weed into candy, which apparently tastes like licorice.

horehound spreading

Horehound mowed down to prevent seeding, like that will help. It is taking over this grassy area.

Most likely, we are going to require herbicide at some point. By the way, the horehound noxious weed spread began when it was introduced to ornamental gardens. I’m all for growing edibles, but why not mint in a container?